[Music] in the first four documentaries dealing with a history of psychic research we looked at the beliefs and practices of humans in the ancient and near past as well as the present as these related to the possibility on the persistence of human consciousness after physical death although there were chemists and physicists involved in these investigations as well as psychologists and psychiatrists and other medical practitioners most of the evidence came from archeology and psychology when experiments were performed these usually consisted of the use of human mediums with photographic records made of the phenomena where possible crooks and lodge were two physicists who did serious work these were the main representatives from what we now commonly call the hard sciences it does not appear that statistical or other mathematical techniques were employed in these researches we now turn to those hard sciences to see what they might be interpreted to say about the continuation of consciousness after physical death specifically we will look at modern physics in a field known as quantum mechanics in those first four documentaries we began as far back as we could beginning with a Neanderthal and much of the scanty evidence had to be interpreted leaving many opportunities for misinterpretation for the hard sciences we shall also have to go very far back to where much of the evidence has to be inferred and interpreted and the opportunities for misinterpretation are again a source of much uncertainty but we have to begin somewhere we will have to take the chance with spotty evidence to make reasonable inferences again using scanty data originally all physics and metaphysics as well as other medical and natural sciences fell under the general rubric of philosophy it was only fairly recently that philosophy was broken up into the various topics that we are now familiar with although there was far eastern and Near Eastern philosophy known in antiquity we will restrict ourselves to the more Western approach the Greek and to begin it is probably a good idea to define some terms the physics that we will be talking about will include ancient and classical thinking as a springboard to take us into the quantum mechanics that we want to consider we need to pay attention to how it all began before we can get a handle on the modern ideas the old physics was easy to define several centuries ago it dealt with physical reality things that have weight and take up space all the material things but some people are inclined to view modern physics a lot more as metaphysics not so easy to define and it is easy to see why this might be if you think about it one definition of metaphysics might go something like this the branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality including the relationship between mind and batter substance and attributes fact and value we will see as we go on that more and more this might also be a definition for the new physics physics and metaphysics are beginning to resemble each other more and more again we will touch on belief systems as well since like it or not they often influence what we see too often these belief systems operate at the level beneath our awareness making it difficult for us to compensate for them and we will touch on religion another tough definition there are just so many definitions some dictionaries say that the word religion comes from re+ Legare from the same root as ligation which means to bind something this refers to religion binding society some think it means binding to God or to a faith the oxford dictionary is doubtful about this origin another definition might be religion is a specific system of belief about deity often involving ritual a court of ethics a philosophy of life and a worldview wait a minute what is a worldview well it seems a worldview as a set of basic foundational beliefs concerning deity humanity and the rest of the universe so religion comes about this way we look at a god or gods and that ourselves and the rest of the universe and what we perceive becomes our religion but that sounds a lot like science as it was perceived originally and it is still that way all except that part about God modern science has tried to keep God out of the calculations and nothing has so far been said about spirituality spirituality was never easy to define about all that we can say for sure is that spirituality is an inner dimension to humanity which often grows into outer manifestations that we call religions most of the time this manifestation changes the spirituality in some way the fact that we have many religions is an indication of this change it appears likely that the deeper dimensions of spirituality cannot be easily and accurately brought into the outer religious forms without being influenced by the individual world of the people who are bringing their inner spirituality and to the outer religious forms spirituality appears to refer to the noncorporeal having no body which also makes it the opposite of materialism the Webster’s new world dictionary defines spirituality as being spiritual how does that come about it requires spiritualization the same dictionary defines spiritual eyes as to deprive of materiality or worldliness and spiritualism is a doctrine that all reality is essentially spiritual one thing that might be added into this definition of spirituality is that over all the ages light has been perceived as being somehow connected with spirituality people talk about seeing the light whether that refers simply to understanding a new idea or to some ethereal vision near-death experiences typically bring with them some references to light all the Gnostic literature is referenced to late and the New Testament references the light of the world and then there is enlightenment we shall see how physics was brought to the ideas of quantum mechanics as the understanding of light increased if there were no other connection between physics and spirituality this alone was served to bind them together we shall see why modern physics and spirituality are pretty well impossible to tell apart where the beliefs about reality and materiality are concerned and all our physics and spirituality and religion depend on consciousness for existence as does everything else but physics and religion have been more outer directed and spirituality more inner directed unfortunately consciousness is the hardest of all to get a handle on we have an ID acts and affects us but we basically don’t have any idea what makes consciousness work what it really is how consciousness is created how it maintains itself and yet we all have a very distinct feeling or belief that our own consciousness is real for us and some are different from unconsciousness and that we are conscious beings awareness is involved in this consciousness somehow but it seems to be only part of it if physics and spirituality and religion depend upon consciousness and we know very little about consciousness how can we know a lot about physical spirituality and religion exactly good question it all seems to become pretty mind-numbing thickets of definitions that run around in circles and if you are getting the idea that we seem to be running around in circles like a dog chasing its tail then you have understood what we are seeing it is much like the mythical snake that eats its own tail but let’s remember we are going to use consciousness and feel consciousness even without being able to define it exactly just as we can drive a car without knowing everything about what is under the hood in the last century physics has become much harder to define and it seems to be veering away from simply studying the facts of physical existence and has been forced by the findings of experiments in laboratories all over the world to begin to consider consciousness whatever that may be physicists have not been exquisitely comfortable with this we are not going to solve all the questions of physics or spirituality or consciousness we just want to take a quick look at how others have struggled with these questions we are especially going to look at a branch of physics called quantum mechanics in a non mathematic away this is also a bit of a problem because quantum mechanics depends upon consciousness and is presently very much all the somewhat unwillingly right in the forefront of consciousness research consciousness researchers in the psychological and psychiatric fields as well as the biological fields are more and more looking into quantum mechanics for solutions to their questions there is another problem quantum mechanics is solidly based and created within mathematics we have no accurate mental images of what we are talking about here mathematics has led the way in every new advanced people play with the mathematics and derived relationships that astonish them and then they try to understand what those relationships might mean mathematics drives the physics today not the other way around to begin let me quote Richard Fineman one of the outstanding creative physicists who holds a nobel prize in the field of modern physics he said I think it is safe to say that no one understands quantum mechanics do not keep saying to yourself if you can possibly avoid it but how can it be like that because you will go down the drain into the blind alley from which nobody has yet escaped nobody knows how it can be like that the land of particle physics of the very small is indeed a wonderland where the Mad Hatter and Alice would feel very much at home and the spirituality that modern physics may be pointing to may end up not necessarily connected to any religion and is unlikely to have anything to do with gods or a god and we might find a sort of definition of spirituality that might make sense when we consider the implications of the field of physics known as quantum mechanics so let us begin our journey after long and careful observations through the course of history it becomes apparent that human religious beliefs and spiritual practices are strongly influenced by human perception of how the universe works in all of recorded history there appears to be corresponding change and beliefs about gods and spirituality and even in forms of social organizations and of government whenever there is a change in human perception of how the universe is constructed and maintained this change in beliefs is rarely rapid or universal over ensuing centuries traces of older beliefs linger on and intertwine with the emerging beliefs and eventually new beliefs become dominant over the old they are usually more than two different levels of belief side-by-side at any one time in history we may take a look at how beliefs have changed through human history because of the immense scope of interactions between beliefs and perceptions it will not be possible to go into any great detail on this phenomenon but a short introduction may serve to indicate the general progress of this interaction between perception of the universe and religious ideas and beliefs here is one view when human consciousness first develops and the awareness of external things impinges upon the consciousness of the individual there is no end built sense of order everything must be accepted as it appears there is no reasoning based upon premises and the rules of logic rules of logic are unknown and there are no premises the linearity of time and mathematical processes including language are minimally developed everything is a mystery all of life a nature is a matter for puzzled conjecture and wonder because of the non-linearity of the mental processes at this stage those that we call unconscious processes as opposed to conscious process they little in what is seen and experienced that looks like linear process the rising and the setting of the Sun are individual magical phenomena of the day and they happen because some spirit or entity is making decisions and not because there are laws built into nature that bring about the apparent rising and the setting of the Sun the things that happen in this universe depend upon someone or something making them happen there are decisions being made by unknown entities to bring about these happenings without these entities there would be no happenings since nothing is actually known about anything and linear processes are not perceived and hence no patterns are perceived there is no way to predict anything in nature at these early stages so nothing makes sense in the usual way of thinking and nothing doesn’t make sense there is simply no sense to worry about everything just is there is no pattern of cohesive belief about the workings of man’s surroundings miracles are not possible at this stage because there is as yet no defined consensus as to what is happening naturally just because of the way nature is that is the laws that nature follows and so anything that happens cannot break any perceived rules and so cannot be a miracle it just is but magic is possible magic is like all the rest of what happens it is the result of someone’s will it is not predictable unless we know the magician and understand what the magician is trying to do it is godlike in its independence if there are any rules they are the magicians rules and not the rules of nature hence the unpredictability and this unpredictability produces doubt and raises fears it is good to be friends with a magician but also good to step carefully where the magician is concerned since there is animation and it is observed after all there is life and death and movement in the universe around us it is assumed that there must be some animating force that does the moving and gives life as a consequence a belief in indwelling spirits takes hold over time since there is no coherent theory as to the origin of such spirits there is no prediction possible as to the reason for the activities of the spirits they act as they will this freedom to act gives them powers that are not restricted by outside agencies they are the stuff of magic they assume the stature of independent beings gods if you will they are not bound by laws or rules but they can originate them as consciousness develops in these early stages there is much psychic evidence for what we might think of as strange goings on we are all aware that the so called more primitive people’s live in a world very different from our own the seeing of the shades of individuals who have moved out of the body and enter some spiritual realm is often claimed by such early consciousness every tree every water spring every animal every cloud has an indwelling spirit or God that animates it and guides us destiny not surprisingly since they are creations of the human imagination many of these gods have amazingly human characteristics they get hungry they get angry they get sad and depressed they become jealous and envious at times and they may be just plain tricksters the people who hold to these beliefs however would be surprised to hear that these cause could not exist without the believers since these gods have occasionally seemingly almost unlimited powers witnessed the power of a hurricane or a severe electrical storm or a volcano it generally behooves humans to tread warily around them since dealing directly with the gods is often seen as a precarious activity there is a desire to place some distance between the God and the individual hence the appearance of middlemen and these soon acquires some mystery and hence respect and power for their ability to come into close contact with the god Moses as an example in the judeo-christian belief system of such a go-between shaman’s are the equivalent of a Moses or a Merlin in other societies there is a necessity to keep a sharp eye on the gods with a view to divining their intentions at any moment individuals who have the ability to do this are in demand hence to develop and the shaman’s and early societies again Moses comes to mind witnesses work before Pharaoh definitely the works of a shaman or magician the shaman is rewarded for standing on guard and watching continually for any signs that the gods are getting restive or perhaps even angry it is hoped that the shaman can offer something to the gods that will placate them the god of a storm cloud may turn really nasty and loose a lightning bolt and spread destruction and even loss of life in its path the god of the grain may become bored or hungry or thirsty and lash out at humans for not maintaining proper feasts for entertainment or not providing irrigation or maybe even not being in a proper state of respect whatever turns a human on will turn on a god whatever might make a human angry might do the same for a God even at this early stage it is clear that human thought turns to the idea that we get hammered for some lack or other guilt is a part of this from the beginning of our creation of gods it is interesting to note we create the gods who later make us uneasy because they might given the right circumstances either take a liking to us or hammer us Jehovah comes to mind as soon as we have created them we get uneasy about their power over us psychologically they are projections of ourselves it is our own perfect these that are reflected back to us in our own creations and these can easily scare the daylights out of us given the right time of day from our present perspective we may find this humorous but many of us probably feel that we had better not laugh too hard just to repeat this since nothing makes sense and there are no patterns it is difficult to discern the reason for the Lightning blast and survival may depend upon finding some way of bringing happiness back to the spirit who throws the electricity at us and of course fear is always present the discouraging thing about fear is that we cannot survive without it and it is darn hard to survive with it but give it a bit of thought if I had not a pretty healthy fear instinct I would not be standing here today I would have killed myself to the simple humerus of attacking something or someone more powerful than I am where I might have fallen off a cliff or drowned or walked in front of a Mack truck or a dinosaur or whatever I would ignore the warning symptoms of my body I will ignore other dangers fear is what keeps us alive for the time being and fear is what eventually kills us stress is nothing but fear of the future in the form of anxiety or worry or anger or depression and we know that stress brings on all the killer diseases that we humans are heir to through the ages and it will make us accident-prone besides and this necessary fear also keeps us focused on any dangers coming from our Creator gods so how do we play Kate these feared powers how do we keep them happy humans of various times suffer hunger it is observed that a hungry individual is not usually a happy individual what could be more reasonable than to conjecture that our God is unhappy because of anger such early thinking can easily lead to the idea that somehow one must feed the God what could be more reasonable to this kind of consciousness than that the physical body of some animal might be eaten with attended ceremonies and the newly separated spirit of the animal offered to the angry God as food we see here the beginnings of religious observances no need to trace the origins of our present observances in detail the Judaic system of sacrificing animals to Jehovah as offerings to placate Jehovah regarding the sins of the people are natural outgrowth of earlier practices that were the common observances of mankind some more aware individuals and the group of humans undergoing this ritual might wonder why if the gods are so powerful they cannot supply their own food such individuals would be quickly shushed so that the ceremony could go on without further antagonizing the God we will see later what happened to Socrates it is not good to question the gods it is also true for politicians and any of the gods that we still create and then worship it is humorous but better not laugh too loud how we elect pretty and significant individuals to offices such as president and preacher and then fall into the trap of elevating these individuals into the ranks of the semi-divine because of the office they hold which incidentally we also created hunger is not the only irritant to the gods perhaps the God is feeling some lack of self esteem perhaps feeling ejected or depressed or left out clearly the Shaymin or priests would say there is need of songs and dances for entertainment with liberal doses of praise and maybe a sacrifice or two occasionally even of the human kind if the God is really upset so we dance and cavort and saint praises and shot the equivalent of the ancient hosannas and hallelujahs to gods who we have created and who are a so low and self-esteem that they need to be encouraged by their creations on certain days of the week so that they can make it through another week of self-doubt we ourselves create the holy spaces in which we dare not walk after we have created them there seems to be no limit to human foolishness humans create gods whom they imagined to be so powerful what will be the use of a feeble god that they terrify the humans that created them it is safe to say that the ancient priests often found it useful to exaggerate the power and the anger of the gods it should be mentioned here that as soon as humans moved out of tents and into cities in other words as soon as there was some sort of civilization and social organization beyond the nomadic life the shaman’s were systematically killed off and priests took their place as civilizations matured the shaman’s function was split into two parts there was a secular King and the spiritual high priest the Pharaoh and the priests of Adam or whoever between them the kings and the priests were the authorities and the group were the nation’s or Empire laterally performing the same functions there was the emperor of Rome and the Pope the king and the priests together they beat up on Western humanity the king taxed the hoi polloi and the priest tied the daylights out of them spirituality generally took the outer form of religion which consisted of fear of and reverence for the gods of nature which included sacrifice to propitiate the gods and all of this there was no personal responsibility for the way the universe is the gods were presumed to exist on their own recognizance their origin and the minds of men have long been forgotten and so the Divine Right of Kings was born this divine right evolving down from the divine creator and there were nobles and there were serves spirituality consisted in obedience to the king and to the gods through the agency of the priests religion and spirituality and government could not have been simpler just remember to ask no questions and to obey and praise King and creator we must repeat here there was no responsibility for the universe there was no power except magic and indentation now called prayer somewhere along the line questions of original things began to surface they were easily made to rest with simple answers that made sense in a time of no sense myths of creation took hold among them the story of the creation of a pair of humans Adam and Eve with Eve actually a sub creation out of the man all good clean fun but not to be taken literally the Adam and Eve story was an admission that humans had not a clue as to how it all started they had not been conscious enough at the beginning to make notes on the actual stages they had gone through to become conscious but something was happening the evolving consciousness of humans was beginning to notice patterns in nature not just the seasons and rough patterns but things moved in strange predetermined ways there was a consciousness developed of times and tides and seas and other activities of nature the human brain developed on the left us on the right it became possible to predict some things and this soon led to questions about spirits deciding the fate of trees and shrubs and bodies of water and so on people began to realize that they could perhaps with luck predict some things patterns in the heavens became more apparent humans might even be able to set up some conditions to test some ideas they had do so and so and see what happens the experimental attitude developed slowly but surely after these ideas had taken hold and were thinking ability came philosophy the outline above may not be exact but the remnants of the beliefs and practices have left enough traces into the present that we can be reasonably confident that the basics are accurate it is time now to trace out the events over the last two and a half thousand years we have written evidence for these events once upon a time before there was physics there was philosophy there was Daly’s around 600 BC it was Thais who first conceived the principle of explaining a lot of different happenings by the use of a few basic ideas the importance of daily idea is that he is the first recorded person who tried to explain natural phenomena by reasoning about them rather than by appeals to the supernatural the idea of gods or spirits inhabiting natural phenomena was beginning to be challenged Pythagoras 520 BC Pythagoras believed that as its deepest level reality is mathematical in nature that philosophy can be used for spiritual purification that the soul can rise to union with a divine that certain symbols have a mystical significance Pythagoras believed that all relations could be reduced to number relations the Pythagorean thought that things are numbers and that the whole cosmos is a scale and the number he viewed the soul as a self moving number experiencing a form of metempsychosis or successive reincarnation in different species until its eventual purification and he had the understanding that all existing objects were fundamentally composed the form and not of material substances Jung later called them archetypes further pythagoras identified the brain as the location of the soul Democritus 430 BC he is best known for his atomic theory Democritus asserted that space or the void had an equal right with a reality or being to be considered existential he conceived of the void as a vacuum an infinite space and which moved an infinite number of atoms that made a being that is the physical world these atoms are eternal and invisible absolutely small so small that their size cannot be diminished hence the name ethyl one or indivisible they are absolutely full and and compressible as they are without porous and entirely fill the space they occupy and they are all same kind differing only in shape arrangement position and size another fundamental idea and the marketers theory is that nature behaves like a machine it is nothing more than a highly complex mechanism where do qualities such as warmth color and taste fit into his atomic theory all such qualities are only apparent and result from impressions on an observer caused by differing configurations of atoms this was not a world which came about through the design or purpose of some supernatural being but rather it was a world which came about through necessity that is from the nature of the atoms themselves Democritus wanted to remove the belief in gods which were he believed only introduced to explain phenomena for which no scientific explanation was then available Socrates for 20 BC Socrates was accused of MPT and corrupting the youth of Athens this was a time and culture when the Greeks thought of gods and goddesses as being associated with protecting particular cities Athens for instance is named after his protecting goddess Athena the defeat of Athens and the Peloponnesian War was interpreted as Athena judging the city for not being pious Socrates was perceived as questioning the gods and in light of the recent war this was not good and further how can you get young men to lay down their lives in battle if this cannot be shown to please the deities Socrates was the first person to question everything and everyone add to this that Socrates was perceived as also questioning the gods and it is easy to see why the political leaders and the priests of the time took offense Socrates died when he was required to drink of the hemlock perhaps the most interesting facet of this is Socrates reliance and what the Greeks called his Damone voice which spoke to Socrates only and always when Socrates was about to make a mistake the Damone is often taken to be what we would call intuition however the Greek word was clearly used to signify a spirit or entity akin to what we would call a guardian angel and Socrates certainly seemed to attribute personality and voice to his Damone Plato 380 BC Plato’s metaphysics divides the world in two different aspects the intelligible world of forms and the perceptual world we see around us he saw the perceptual world and the things in it as imperfect copies of the intelligible forms or ideas Plato located ultimate reality and ideas or eternal forms knowable only through flexion and reason in the perceptual world the particular objects we see around us bear only a dim resemblance to the more ultimately real forms of Plato’s intelligible world Plato thought that it is as if we are inside a cave with our backs to the entrance and we are seeing shadows on the cave wall in front of us these shadows are like the shadows we must see when we hold her hands up between the candle and the wall and create different shapes of shadows rabbit heads geese whatever sort of archetypes Aristotle 350 BC Aristotle saw ultimate reality and physical objects knowable through experience where Aristotle differed most sharply from medieval and modern thinkers was in his beliefs that the universe had never had a beginning it would never end it was eternal in the later Middle Ages Aristotle’s work was rediscovered and enthusiastically adopted by medieval scholars and many accepted every word of his writings or at least every word that did not contradict the Bible as eternal crews fused with Christian doctrine Aristotelian philosophy became the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church as a result some scientific discoveries in the Middle Ages and Renaissance were criticized simply because they were not found in Aristotle Epicurus about 300 BC Epicurus rejected the existence of platonic forms and then a material soul and he said that the gods have no influence on our lives he taught that the point of all one’s actions was to attain tranquillity and that this could be done by limiting one’s desires and by banishing the fear of the gods and of death Epicurus believed that the basic constituents of the world are atoms which are uncountable microscopic bits of matter moving in the void were just simply empty space ordinary objects are conglomerations of atoms furthermore the properties of macroscopic bodies and all of the events we see occurring can be explained in terms of the collisions rebounding and entanglements of atoms because Epicurus believe that nothing comes into existence from nothing he thinks that the universe has no beginning but as always existed and will always exist our present cosmos is only a temporary agglomeration of atoms and there is only one of an infinite number of such which come into existence and then dissolve away atoms – as the basic building blocks of all else cannot come into existence but have always existed Epicurus thinks that atoms have weight and the properties of size shape and resistance the sensible qualities that we think bodies have like sweetness are not really in the object at all but are simply subjective states of the Precision’s awareness produced by the interaction of bodies with our sense organs because Epicurus wishes to banish the fear of the gods he insists that occurrences like earthquakes and lightning can be explained entirely and atomic terms and are not you to the will of God all of our knowledge ultimately comes from the census thanks Epicurus and we can trust the census when properly used so much for these seven major philosophers we can stop off here and note that in all the works of these philosophers there is a fundamental dichotomy at the simplest level we can say that some believe that the world is real and solid and others believe that the world is an illusion made up of forms the forms are also a lot like what Carl Jung refers to as archetypes these ideas foreshadow the later debates about whether the objects of a universe and especially light are in the nature of particles or waves but the time for ideation without experiment was coming to an end the Roman Empire would rise and then another three hundred years a man named Jesus would be born for three hundred and fifty years after that there would be a struggle between the gods of the Greeks and the Romans and the new Jesus cult by around 535 ad the Roman Empire and the new Christian cult became quite cozy with each other and speculation about how the universe was constructed slowly disappeared from human activity as obedience to church and state included closing the mind to all thinking and the curtain of darkness known as the dark ages descended upon the Western world the ocean speculative and were discovered at it were ruthlessly weeded out of the population it will be about 1,500 years from the time of Epicurus before the light of mental activity will glimmer once again in the West but glimmer it yet and one of the early lights and the newly awakening scientific firmament was a man by the name of Roger Bacon [Music] you