hey what’s up Stefanie the English
coach here from EnglishFullTime.com today we’re gonna talk about the present
perfect tense in English now I know this tense is difficult for many of you
because either it doesn’t exist in your native language or if it does exist it’s
used differently than it’s used in English so hopefully I can make this
tense very very very easy for you the way I see grammar is that grammar is
logical in any language you just have to understand the pattern or how the
grammatical structure is formed and then you have to learn when to use it
situation scenarios etc so if you can understand all of that something that’s
very vague and abstract suddenly becomes very easy so if you really want to get
deep into this tense and understand it fully I highly recommend that you
download the guide that I’m gonna link in the description
I created a complete guide for you guys it’s all about how to use this tense
with tons of sentence examples I spent well over eight hours making this guide
for you so it is an excellent resource I think you’re really gonna like it
so download it study it highlight it take a picture put it on Instagram
use #EnglishFullTime tag my account and show me that you are
practicing with this material and I will keep making more also if this video gets
to ten thousand likes at least then I will know you really liked grammar
videos and I will make another one just let me know what grammar tense you want
me to cover next this is the first grammar video I’m making on my channel
and we have a lot to cover but before we get started let’s go ahead and thank our
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link in the description to sign up and let’s continue with the lesson okay so
how do we form the present perfect tense we use the subject has have and the past
participle form of a verb let me give you some examples I have walked
I have played I have wanted right now you have to be careful with the past
participle form of the verb though because sometimes it’s irregular I have
sung I have broken I have flown with irregular past participles you just have
to memorize them there’s really no rhyme rule or reason to which is which and how
to remember etc etc just focus on memorizing the list so that you can use
these words correctly now when we combine subjects like I you he
she wiII they etc with having has there are several different ways we can do it
check this out I have I have not I’ve I haven’t I’ve not okay so that’s five
different ways that we can make these combinations and just a tip for you
native English speakers love contracting words so if we can use a contraction we
do okay it makes you speak a lot faster and it’s just easier so if you can use a
contraction you want to use it unless you’re writing a formal academic essay
or if you’re trying to emphasize something you might want to say no I
have wanted that for a long time that’s when maybe you wouldn’t use a
contraction for emphasis okay so now let’s talk about when to use the present
perfect tense the most important thing to remember is that the present perfect
connects the past and the present so for example something that started in the
past and continues today like he’s been a manager for seven years this means he
became a manager seven years ago and he’s still a manager today
another example is I’ve been really sick lately this could mean that I got sick
and then I got better I got sick and then I got better I got sick and then I
got better okay but I’ve been really sick lately I get started in the past
and I’m still sick on and off again okay we also use the present perfect when we
don’t care to emphasize when exactly something happened so someone could say
I’ve been to Spain twice now this means they went in the past two times but it’s
also indicating that they could potentially go again right something
that happened in the past and could continue in the future
another example is I’ve had three exams this week okay so I’m saying that it
happened this week but I’m not telling you exactly if my exams were on Monday
because if not I would say I had three exams on Monday I’m using the past
simple but if I say I’ve had three exams this week I’m just telling you that they
happened sometime this week and I’m also indicating that perhaps I will have more
exams this week that they’re not finished I’m not emphasizing that my exams are over I’m just
emphasizing that it has happened again if I say I had three exams this week I
am clearly emphasizing that I completed three exams and I have no more this week
I had three exams this week versus I’ve had all right we can also use the
present perfect when we talk about achievements like she’s won three Oscars
and noticed that I contracted that there I didn’t say she has won three Oscars I
said she’s won she’s won she’s won three Oscars that is an achievement and the
reason I’m using the present perfect it’s because she won them in the past
but I’m indicating that she is still an actress and she still has the potential
to win more Oscars so it could continue in the future on the other hand if I’m
talking about maybe an actor who’s no longer alive I might say he won two
Oscars I’m using the simple past because he did it in the past and there’s no
chance he’s going to be doing any of that in the future
okay cuz he’s dead another way that we use the present perfect is to talk about
things that haven’t happened yet but that we expect to happen okay so for
example let’s say you had a job interview and I say hey did you get the
job and you say I don’t know yet I haven’t heard back from the company you
haven’t heard back meaning they have not called you yet but you are expecting to
get a call back okay another example is I haven’t been to Brazil yet okay I am
dying to go to Brazil I cannot wait a lot of people ask me about this in the
comments but I haven’t been to Brazil yet I haven’t gone to Brazil yet so I
have not because I expect to go I’m not gonna say I didn’t go to Brazil because
that’s awkward it’s like when when didn’t you go do you didn’t go when in a
specific year in 2013, 14, when you had a specific opportunity what are you
talking about using the past simple connects something that happened in the
past to a very specific time or instance or occasion okay so I could say oh I had
the opportunity to go to Brazil in 2014 but I didn’t go right so I had the
opportunity at a specific time and I didn’t go that’s not what I’m talking about I’m
saying I haven’t gone meaning I expect to go
I just haven’t gone in the past but I expect to go in the future so think
about things that you expect to happen that have not happened yet and you can
write some examples in the comments actually you can write examples for all
of these in the comments just to practice okay another example of
something that has not yet happened scientists have not yet discovered a
cure for cancer okay so why do we say it like this they have not discovered or
have not yet discovered because we expect them to eventually discover a
cure for cancer right we also use the present perfect to talk about change
over time so let’s say that I see a kid and then I don’t see him for two years
and he gets really tall and then when I finally see him again I say wow you’ve
grown up a lot since the last time I saw you or Wow
you’ve gotten a lot taller since the last time I saw you okay so that is
indicating a change over time you’ve gotten taller since the last time I saw
you you’ve grown up a lot since the last time I saw you
now think about when you first started learning English I bet your English has
improved a lot since then right I bet your English has improved a lot since
then I’m talking about a change over time okay another example of change over
time she’s lost a lot of weight since she started the diet she has lost a lot
of weight since she started the diet again I contracted that the first time
she’s lost a lot of weight she’s lost okay change over time she has lost a lot
of weight since she started the diet she started the diet over there somewhere
and then she’s lost a lot of weight over time until today and she continues to
lose weight now if you’re talking about a diet that she did a long time ago and
maybe she stopped the diet gained the weight back or who knows what then you
would say yeah she lost a lot of weight on the diet she lost it in the past
maybe it found her again I’m just kidding okay now one of the most common
ways to use the present perfect is to talk about life experiences like have
you ever been on a plane have you ever seen
the office have you ever met the president now speaking of life
experiences there is a really common and well-known game that English speakers
play you can look it up later it’s called never have I ever and there’s
different variations of this game but basically it helps you learn interesting
things about your friends and whoever you play the game with so basically you
say never have I ever okay and then you say something you’ve never done so I’m
going to go first and I’ll tell you guys some things that I’ve never done using
this sentence construction and then you can practice in the comments by telling
me five things you’ve never done and then as you guys read each other’s
comments you’ll find things that people say that they’ve never done and if you
have done that you can comment and say hey I have done that so someone can say
never have I ever climbed Mount Everest but by saying that maybe you’ll meet
someone who has climbed Mount Everest okay so never have I ever driven a
motorcycle never have I ever been to Brazil never have I ever broken a bone
never have I ever donated blood and never have I ever been to Disney World
so again we use the present perfect to talk about life experiences and we even
have this game never have I ever to talk about our life experiences and to figure
out what people have done and what people haven’t done so now it’s your
turn tell me five things in the comments that you’ve never done using the
construction never have I ever okay so that was a little detour we still have
more to this lesson there’s lots to learn here but the next thing I want to
say is that sometimes a sentence in the present perfect can accomplish multiple
functions at the same time let’s just look at this sentence I’ve been a
teacher for over years and I’ve worked with hundreds of students around
the world #TrueStory okay so here we are
showing something that started in the past and continues today I’ve been a
teacher for over 10 years right and I’ve worked with hundreds of students around
the world but this is also talking about life experience and it’s talking about
achievements so remember that all the things I list
previously in the video like we can use the present perfect to talk about
achievements life experience etc etc sometimes in one sentence we’re doing
multiple things okay so I hope you guys are hanging in there with me
things are about to get a little bit more advanced
alright let’s compare the following sentences and analyze what the
difference is between these two sentences they cannot grow their
business until they get some investors or they cannot grow their business until
they’ve gotten some investors what’s the difference it’s so subtle it’s very
subtle basically the sentence that uses the
present perfect tense is emphasizing that one action must be completed before
the other action can happen it is about emphasis okay they’re essentially saying
the same thing but one is placing more emphasis on the fact that something has
to be completed before the other thing can happen so they cannot grow their
business until they get some investors it’s kind of matter of fact they cannot
grow their business until they’ve gotten some investors meaning it’s absolutely
impossible for them to grow their business until they’ve gotten some
investors again essentially they are saying the same thing the difference is
very subtle but sometimes this emphasis is necessary if you’re a freelancer for
example a lot of freelancers take payment after they’ve completed the work
but then they run into experiences where their client doesn’t pay or they pay
late so what I’ve done and the freelancers that I work with they all
say the same thing we do not begin our work until we have received the payment
okay or we will not begin until we have received the first payment okay
basically ensuring I need to receive payment first and then I will begin the
work or then I will turn in the work or whatever the arrangement is okay so we
can also use the present perfect with the passive voice I know a lot of you
guys hate the passive voice and you hate the present perfect so this is probably
the worst combination in the world but again my goal is to make it easy for you
I hope I’m making it easy please let me know in the
comments if this is making more sense okay so how do we do this how do we form
the present perfect in the passive voice we use has or have plus been plus the
past participle okay it’s actually pretty easy gold has been associated
with wealth for centuries the lost dog has been found once the car has been
washed then it can be painted remember in the passive construction we’re not
emphasizing the subject of the sentence we’re not emphasizing who does the
action we are just emphasizing the result okay like the lost dog has been
found who found the dog we either don’t know or we don’t care okay but the dog
has been found yay next we’re gonna talk about how the present perfect can be
used in sentence clauses now remember a clause is simply a group of words where
you need a group of words to express something okay but it’s not exactly a
complete idea let me give you some examples so this makes sense
whenever I’ve made up my mind okay whenever I’ve I have made up my mind so
that is in the present perfect but when you hear that by itself does it make
sense no because it’s a clause it is a group of words but by itself
it does not make sense whenever I’ve made up my mind but now let me put this
in a sentence for you so you see the big picture and you see how this works I’ll
let you know my final decision whenever I’ve made up my mind okay I
don’t know what I’m gonna decide right now but I will let you know my final
decision whenever I’ve made up my mind okay next
wait I’ve dropped this month that by itself does not really make sense right
but what if someone says oh my goodness I cannot believe the weight I’ve dropped
this month right we’re talking a lot about diets in this video aren’t we oh
well okay I can’t believe the weight I’ve dropped
this month now we are going to do a clause that is in past participle form
okay which have been considered the most valuable gemstone for centuries
right that doesn’t make sense alone which have been considered the
most valuable gemstone for centuries now let me put it into a sentence diamonds
which have been considered the most valuable gemstone for centuries are
actually not that rare diamonds which have been considered the most valuable
gemstone for centuries are actually not that rare next although we’ve been
friends for many years right that alone by itself is incomplete you can just
hear that it’s incomplete now let me finish it although we’ve been friends
for many years we still disagree on many things although we’ve been friends for
many years we still disagree on many things ok so now we are going to cover
some common phrases that we use with the present perfect tense okay now it’s
really great to have these phrases in your repertoire okay to just have them
in your mind and your memory at the front of your brains so you can just use them whenever you need them the first one is where have
you been okay hey where have you been like let’s
say someone has been your I don’t know your dad your mom I don’t do you live
with your dad in your mom maybe your wife your husband your your kid I don’t
know someone’s been gone all day and they come back and you’re like hey where
have you been like you you don’t know so you’re asking okay where where you been
where have you been next I haven’t seen her in years or I haven’t seen him in
years or I haven’t seen them in years okay I haven’t something that hasn’t
happened for a long time and continues to not happen that’s a little bit
awkward because it’s a negative sentence but it still makes sense logically if
you think about it something that hasn’t happened and continues to not happen
right okay maybe draw a diagram so that can make sense or something if you’re
struggling with it we haven’t talked in ages we haven’t talked in ages I haven’t
heard from him in a while I haven’t heard from him in a while I
haven’t gotten around to that yet so for example Renzo has been asking me
to make a rather important phone call for a couple weeks I have been so busy I
literally haven’t gotten around to it yet okay I haven’t been able to do it or
in my case I have not prioritized it above the other things I’ve been doing
just because I’ve been so busy next I’ve had a rough day or some people might say
I’ve had a tough day I tend to use rough I don’t know why it just feels better
I’ve had a rough day okay tough just seems anyways but people do use it okay
I’ve had a great day I’ve had a rough day I’ve had a great time another one is
have we met before if you’re meeting somebody and you’re
not sure I think this is a pick-up line that guys use also have we met before
when they no they didn’t actually meet the person anyways I could be wrong but
I feel like I’ve seen that in movies a couple times so it probably happens if
you’re a guy maybe you can try that and just you know let us know if it works in
the comments next has anyone seen my and then whatever you’re looking for has
anyone seen my keys has anyone seen my wallet has anyone seen my baby I’m just
kidding has anyone seen my phone okay so that pretty much covers the ways the
many ways that we use the present perfect tense again if you really wanted
to into this and keep studying and get lots
of examples then please download the guide that I’ve linked in the
description it’s absolutely free and I’m still as at the point of making this
video I am still working on it it’s almost finished but it’s already like 10
pages long okay I’m trying to make it as concise as possible but the reality is
there’s so much information to share and examples that I want to give you so that
it all comes together and makes sense so it’s a bit long but I think you’re
really going to like it and I think it’s gonna help this whole tense make sense
now before I end this video I just want to share a couple mistakes that people
make with the present perfect tense so that you can avoid these mistakes the
first mistake is basically not knowing your past participles you have got to
memorize the past participles because if you don’t you will use these incorrectly
so to give you an example of this and to throw Renzo under the bus a little bit
when we were dating it had been like a few months or something like that and
when he realized how quickly the time had gone by he said Wow time has really
flowed up hasn’t it and I was like flowed up what is this guy talking about
for those of you who don’t know my husband is not a native English speaker
and when we met his English was not that good okay so anyways he said time had
really he said time had really flowed up and when I finally realized
what he was trying to say I was like oh my gosh he was trying to say that time
had flown by so yeah memorize your past participles
another mistake that I’ve seen is students using contractions where they
shouldn’t use contractions let me give you an example if someone asks you have
you seen that movie you can say yeah or yes or yes I have okay but don’t say yes
I’ve yes I’ve okay don’t contract it right there
contractions don’t go at the end of sentences they go at the beginning or
somewhere in the middle so don’t end your sentence with a contraction next if
someone says have you gone to the bank and your answer is yes you know that you
went this morning don’t say yes I have gone to the bank this morning because
this morning indicates a specific time and remember with the present perfect
we’re not indicating a specific time you could say yes I’ve gone to the bank but
if you’re going to indicate a specific time you need to use the past simple and
say yes I went to the bank this morning okay the last thing I want to say is
that in sentences we can often combine multiple tenses in this video I tried to
give you sentences that focused mainly on the present perfect without combining
any other tenses because I don’t know how well you know those tenses and I
didn’t want to confuse you but for example the sentence have you ever
wondered what life would be like if cellphones had never been invented have
you ever wondered that is in the present perfect tense but everything that comes
after that is in different tenses okay so we can combine conditional tenses
present perfect past perfect past simple future etc but there’s always going to
be a rhyme and a reason to everything it all depends on the specific idea you’re
trying to communicate so remember that grammar is very precise it’s used to
communicate very specific ideas as you saw earlier in this video a small
difference can make a very subtle change in a sentence but it’s still a change
nonetheless the constructions don’t mean exactly the same thing so a lot of this
might not make sense in the beginning but now that you’re aware of it and as
you see this tense more and more and more you will start to internalize
this grammar tense you’ll start to understand how to construct it naturally
without having to think okay I have to put the subject here in the past
participle here and this you won’t have to think about any of that and you’ll
start to understand the tense the way native speakers do where we just know
how to use it but we might not even be able to explain how we know or why it
needs to be used that way we just say I don’t know that’s the way that’s right
that’s the way it’s supposed to be used okay so that is it thank you so much for
watching this video again give it a thumbs up if you liked it subscribe to
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yet and again if this video gets to 10,000 likes then I will know that you
guys really appreciated this grammar lesson and want more just let me know in
the comments which grammar lesson you want next and don’t forget to check out
Lingoda alright you guys that is it and I will see you in the next video bye