Fan palm fronds Breaking to size (25 cm) Spindle stick De-barking Splitting Assembling impeller Base stone to hold spindle in while spinning Fanning flames Digging clay from creek Fan palm Fan palm fiber Mixing clay and fiber (so it won’t crack as it dries) Forming fan housing Matching fan to housing diameter (allow for some space inside the housing) Making air entry (between 1/3 to 1/4 the diameter of the housing is my rule) Forming spout Forming sides Note: Air exit is same diameter as air entry (air in equals air out) Covering vine rings with clay Fanning flames Turn over when dry Testing blower Making air pipe (to prevent the blower from touching the fire and getting damaged and to better concentrate the air jet) Making a small furnace Making a charcoal retort (only 50 cm in diameter as an experiment) 6 holes made around the base of cylindrical retort Stacking the retort with wood Plastering top with clay Hot coals from the fire Lighting from the top Fire burns back down towards the air entries When you see fire through the holes it’s time to seal it up Finally closing the air exit last (about 2 to 3 hours burn time all up) Opening the retort the next day Charcoal on one side, un-burnt wood on the other (for next time) Next batch Only need to rebuild the top this time Notice here that charcoal burns a lot hotter than the wood it’s made from Water with thin film that breaks easily (a sign of iron bacteria) Collecting congealed iron bacteria Dried iron bacteria Pre heating furnace with wood Charcoal Bacteria After 3 hours of work The next day Just slag no visible iron this time Vitrified furnace Vitrified air pipe Blower and charcoal