– I want to tell you about the universe. What it is, how it came to be, what its building blocks are. I want to tell you how the
future creates the past, which then creates the future. But first, I want to
tell you about crystals. You might be surprised
to know that a crystal isn’t an expensive piece of glass or a chandelier in some fancy dining room. The word crystal simply means
a pattern that is periodic. Look at this checkerboard pattern. See how it continues to spread out infinitely in each direction? That means it’s a periodic pattern. So that’s a two-dimensional crystal. This is another two-dimensional crystal. This is another. You can also have
three-dimensional crystals. By the way, this 3D glass
is called crystal because its atoms are actually arranged
in a crystalline pattern. So, see how I’m projecting
this three-dimensional crystal to a two-dimensional image on the sand? See how the 2D projection looks distorted because of the angle of the projection? That 2D image also has a pattern but it isn’t periodic
so it’s not a crystal. But there’s a deep connection
between the 2D object on the sand and the 3D mother crystal. This distorted 2D pattern
is called a quasicrystal. A quasicrystal in a certain
dimension, in this case, 2D, is a projection of a crystal
in a higher dimension, in this case, 3D. A group of physicists in
Los Angeles is working on a new physics theory where
a particular 8D crystal, yep, that’s right, an
eight-dimensional crystal, is projecting to 4D at
a very particular angle which forms a 4D quasicrystal
and from this 4D quasicrystal, they derive a 3D quasicrystal,
which they believe is the fundamental
substructure of all of reality. This 3D quasicrystal has a
fundamental building block, a tetrahedron, which
is a three-dimensional equilateral triangle. The size of each edge on
this shape is the smallest possible length that can exist. This is called the Planck length. It’s 10 to the 35 times
smaller than a meter. So you know how your TV
screen is broken down into building blocks called pixels? A pixel is the smallest
possible indivisible unit of the 2D screen, so think
of reality as your TV screen but in 3D and think of the
tetrahedron as a 3D pixel, the smallest possible
indivisible unit of reality. The tetrahedra in the
quasicrystal combine with other tetrahedra using complex
mathematical rules to fill up all of the
space in the universe. Each tetrahedron only
has a few specific states in which it can exist at any given moment. And because of the rules
of how these pixels connect to each other, if one tetrahedron
is in a certain state, this dictates the states of many other tetrahedra throughout all of space. But here’s the weird thing. If a certain tetrahedron can be in any one of just a few possible
states in a given moment, who or what chooses the state it should be in at any given moment? Well, for such a choice to be made, we need to scientifically,
mathematically, and logically bring in a new element into physics. And that element is consciousness. If you’re not a scientist,
you might be surprised to learn that nobody actually knows the exact value of the speed of light. We have a close approximation,
but not the exact value. The closest we can get to measuring it has to do with the
precision of our machines, but no matter how
precise our machines get, we will never be able to
measure the exact speed of light without a theory that tells
us what it is and why it is, and none of the current
physics theories do that. – [Woman] Oh look, Professor
Einstein, you look so cute! – [Einstein] Do I look pretty here? – Yes, yes.
– No wait, that’s my bad side, what if I go? – Yes, that is good.
– What if I stick out my tongue like this? – Good!
– Uh-oh. – Our best physics theories,
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics both use the speed of light as a starting point. In other words, they use
an inexact measurement of the speed of light
without explaining why it is, what it is, or why the universe even has a speed limit in the first place. We need a new theory. And such a theory is what the
physicists and mathematicians of Quantum Gravity Research
in Los Angeles are working on. They call it emergence theory and it will, really for the first time ever, provide an explanation
for the speed of light and the other constants,
such as Planck’s constant and the fine structure content. Basically what is needed
is a theory of everything, a theory that explains the very fundamental aspects of reality. String theory, which once
held a lot of promise for possibly being a successful
theory of everything, has not made any successful
predictions and regardless of predictions, the theory
itself isn’t actually a theory of everything, it’s just
not, because it can’t explain the speed of light or the other constants. Quantum mechanics and general
relativity, on the other hand, do make good predictions,
but they don’t explain the fundamental constants either. – [Man] Professor Einstein,
why does the speed of light have the exact value that it does? – [Einstein] Well, to put
it plainly, well, security! – So what clues does nature offer us for what a theory of
everything should look like? We’ve identified seven. Information, causality
loops, non-determinism, consciousness, pixelation, E8
crystal, and the golden ratio. A growing number of physicists are saying reality is made of information. What does that even mean? Well, information is meaning
in the form of symbolism. A language or code provide this kind of information conveying symbolism. A very different type of symbol is one that represents itself. Geometric symbols can do that. A cube can represent love,
if we say it does, or it can represent, really, with
minimal subjectivity, itself. Could there be a language or
code made out of geometry? What type of information
would such a language express? Quantum physics theory
and classical physics indicate that reality
is made of information and there is no evidence
that reality is made of anything other than information. Many physicists agree
with this and many don’t. But those that don’t
agree that reality is made of information have no
explanation for what reality is. If it’s not information. Gentlemen? – [Man] Reality is made of information. – [Man] Nope. – [Man] Yes, it is made of information. – No.
– Okay, so what is it made of, if not information? – Energy.
– Energy is information! – That’s stupid.
– Energy is the potential for a particle to change its position. Potential is information,
energy is information! – Nope.
– It’s information! – Mm-mm.
– Then what is it? – Not information.
– Then what is it? – [Man] Not information! – Reality is geometric. A geometric language in the
form of geometric symbolism, the type of symbols that
represent themselves, might explain how a geometric reality can be made of pure information. Information implies meaning,
but what is meaning? Meaning is a comparison,
that’s what we do, but we do it so fast, we
don’t realize we’re doing it, we look at something and
we match it to something from our database, we
say, that is a crosswalk, that is a building, not a
crosswalk, that is a window, not a building, so meaning is
the perception of something relative to something
else, so therefore meaning is subjective and requires choice. Can we get some dramatic music here? (dramatic music) Because meaning is subjective,
for it to even exist, it needs to be perceived or measured by some form of consciousness. Einstein showed how
the past and the future exist simultaneously in
one geometric object. So all time exists all the time. Let me say that again, all
time exists all the time. I know that sounds kind
of weird and unintuitive but we have to kind of
suspend our common sense and accept that mathematically,
and according to the best physics formulas we have,
that actually makes sense. So, let’s visualize the geometric object that Einstein spoke about as a block. Remember the tetrahedra,
the building block pixels of reality I told you about? Now imagine the entire
universe, everything, everywhere, in one frozen moment in time. Like a single frame in a
movie, in this one frame, all of reality everywhere appears frozen in this one position. Let me give you an analogy. In a movie shot on 35 millimeter film, there are 24 frames a second. There’s no actual movement in a movie, there is just a sequence of frozen frames. Now remember how I told
you about the Planck length of space, which is the
smallest length possible? Well there is also a Planck length of time and it is much shorter
than 24 frames a second. In fact, it’s 10 to the 44
times shorter than a second. Okay, so back to our
frozen frame of reality. The entire universe in one
frozen moment, one frame, but instead of a frame in a movie, it’s a frame in all of reality. Now, imagine the next frame. Each frame is different
from the previous one, just like in a movie. See how all frames exist in Einstein’s space-time all at once? Okay, now here’s where things
get really really weird. We assume that the past
influences the future. That’s how we appear
to experience reality. But when you look at this block, why would one side be the past
and one side be the future? Why go left to right
and not right to left? Why can’t the future influence the past? Take away the names past and future if that helps you think of this concept. So what if the past influences
the future and the future influences the past in
an endless feedback loop? So then the question is,
which part of the past is influencing which part of
the future and vice versa, and the answer is all
time is affecting all time all the time.
– Oy vey, I need a drink. – Is this even possible? Can me 20 years from now influence me now just as I influence her? So can me five minutes from now
influence me 10 minutes ago, just as me 10 minutes ago
influences me as a baby, just as me as a baby
influences me on my deathbed? This is too weird to even grasp. But everything we know
says this is the way it is. Am I stoned? Okay, so if every moment is
co-creating every other moment, both forward and backward in
time, then reality would be this massive neural network
spanning space and time. This type of network would
have one even way stranger quality than anything
we’ve talked about so far, it would be its own creator. But the fact that all
time exists all the time does not mean that the
future is written in stone and we’re some kind of programmed
animation or something. (cheerful music) That’s what they used to believe, though. Years ago, it was popular to believe in the somewhat bummer
idea of reality being a deterministic program
playing itself out. The famous double slit
experiment ruled out determinism. Look it up if you’ve never
heard of it, it’s wild and is one of the cornerstones
of modern physics. But for now, take my word for
it, it ruled out determinism and ushered in a new
era of non-determinism, or basically, free will. So how does free will work? One of the most surprising
discoveries of quantum physics is that reality only
exists when it is observed, that literally particles do not exist until they are observed. Famous physicist John Wheeler,
he’s the guy who came up with the term black
hole, says that reality is made of information, which
is created by observation. The observation must be made, he says, by something conscious. And Nobel prize winner Frank Wilczek said that quantum theory is
contentious and obscure, and that it will remain that
way until someone constructs, within the formalism of
quantum mechanics, an observer, a model entity whose states correspond to a recognizable caricature
of conscious awareness. An entity, an observer, so
Frank Wilczek is basically talking about an entity, not
necessarily a human being or an animal that is capable of generating information by observing and measuring. But what would that conscious entity be? Well we definitely know
that consciousness exists in the universe, I mean, at
least in us humans, right? I mean, I’m conscious, you’re
conscious, he’s conscious, I think.
– I’m conscious! (cheering) – Consciousness relates deeply to physics in ways not yet fully understood. In fact, consciousness is
kind of like one of the least understood things in all of science. Nobody knows exactly what it is. Weird, right? So if reality is pure
information, if everything, energy, matter, thought,
if it’s all information, then it becomes clear
that reality deeply ties into consciousness in some
way, as if the fundamental stuff of reality is somehow consciousness. Did consciousness and
information somehow emerge in a causality feedback loop? German physicist Werner
Heisenberg developed the first equations of quantum mechanics using a type of math called matrix theory. He deduced that space
and time were pixelated into indivisible three-dimensional
Planck-length units just like the two-dimensional pixels on your computer screen.
– It’s good to be made of pixels. The mathematics indicated this.
– Mathematics! I love mathematics! – Your pizza, professor!
– And pizza, oh, I love pizza,
especially pixelated pizza. – [Marion] And interestingly,
there was no solid experimental evidence for smooth, in other words, not pixelated, space-time. – [Werner] Mm, pizza. (crowd shouting) We are NOT PIXELATED!!! – [Einstein] We are not pixelated! – Yes, you are, morons.
– Your mother is pixelated! – Space is smooth.
– There’s no evidence of that, and the mathematics show it is pixelated, so it must be pixelated.
– Well that’s interesting, bullshit.
– It must be pixelated! – [Einstein] Bullshit,
bullshit, bullshit, bullshit! – [Marion] On the other
hand, most scientists agree that a length can be no
shorter than Planck length, which suggests reality is pixelated. – [Einstein] There is no length shorter than the Planck length.
– That means reality is pixelated.
– I’m not pixelated, I’m not!
– Dude, you’re kind of being a little
like one of those people who deny evolution
because they can’t handle the fact their ancestors were monkeys. Are you a monkey, huh,
are you a little monkey? – We believe that until
a quantum gravity theory of pixelated space-time is discovered, the issue will remain
confusing for everyone. What type of geometric code would describe a pixelated reality? 80 years of smashing
particles together in particle accelerators such as the
famous large Hadron collider in Geneva have given us a strange clue, that all the fundamental
particles and forces convert into one another,
like they literally transform from one to the other
according to a process called gauge symmetry transformation, and all of these conversions
correspond to a shape, and not just any shape, an
eight-dimensional shape. Now this shape forms a crystal. Now remember crystals
are periodic patterns of a certain shape, like that checkerboard is a 2D crystal made up of squares, so this crystal is of a
particular eight-dimensional shape and this crystal is
known as the E8 Lattice. (jazzy music) To generate that 3D quasicrystal, the substructure at the
pixelated fabric of reality, we project this 8D crystal to 4D. And then we convert that to 3D. Now, just like the basic cell
shape of the 3D cubic lattice is the cube, the cell
shape of the E8 lattice is an 8D shape with 240 vertices. We call it the gosset polytope. When the gosset polytope
is projected to 4D, it becomes two identical
shapes of different sizes. The ratio of their sizes
is a unique number, 0.618, also known as the golden ratio. (explosion) The golden ratio may be the
fundamental constant of nature. It is a ratio that is
fundamental to circumscribed equilateral triangles and
it’s weirdly ubiquitous in the universe, appearing everywhere from the quantum to celestial scales. Ever so interestingly, it
appears in black holes. – [Einstein] I don’t want
to fly into a black hole! I wish I never theorized your existence! (burps) – Okay, let’s get serious for a second. Here are three quick facts
for you science heads. The golden ratio is the precise
point where a black hole’s modified specific heat changes
from positive to negative and it is part of the equation for the lower bound on black hole entropy. The golden ratio even relates
the loop quantum gravity parameter to black hole entropy. Why does this support the
claim that the golden ratio is the fundamental constant of nature? Because a theory of everything must unite general relativity with quantum
mechanics and a black hole is where these two theories
converge at their limits. Okay, so bear with me through
some really weird math right now and I’ll reward
you with some amazing footage of John Malkovich getting
a pie in the face. There’s a type of mathematics
called matrix mathematics. No, not that type of matrix. (upbeat music) Matrix math is the type of math that quantum physics uses in its formulas. Without getting too technical, this is an example of a matrix. A matrix is just a group of numbers that are arranged in columns in rows. And there’s a certain
amount of combinations for these numbers inside the matrix, like if a matrix has
four numbers inside it, there are 24 different
possible combinations for those four numbers. Quantum mechanics uses
matrices that are binary, so they only contain various
combinations of two numbers. Each of these combinations
of numbers has a value. It’s called an eigenvalue. Some eigenvalues are called trivial. These are values like one, two, and zero. And some are called non-trivial, and those are all sorts of
more complex-looking numbers, so here’s the interesting part. Where’s that interesting part? Oh yes, here, the highest
probability non-trivial eigenvalues that show up
in binary matrices are, ready for this? The golden ratio and minus
one over the golden ratio. So we now see a deep
link between black holes and quantum mechanics
because the golden ratio appears deeply in both black hole physics and in quantum mechanics. Okay, good job bearing with
me, so here’s your reward. John Malkovich getting a pie in the face. – No, I won’t, no no,
But… I’m not John Malkovich. – Pie! The golden ratio appears
to startling accuracies in many other ways throughout the universe in scales both large and small. It is so prevalent that its existence simply cannot be looked
at as coincidental. In the past, the appearance of this ratio has usually been ignored by scientists because they had no way to
explain it, so interest in it was considered the stuff
of amateur scientists. But now, for the first time,
a rigorous quantum gravity theory is being developed which predicts the golden ratio’s existence
literally everywhere. So what would a theory
of everything look like that answers these seven
clues we just presented? Information, causality
loops, non-determinism, consciousness, pixelation, E8
crystal, and the golden ratio. (KLEE) So we think reality is a
mosaic-like code or language at the smallest scale of reality possible which is called the Planck length. Particle accelerator data
tells us that all particles and forces relate to
one another according to a higher-dimensional crystal
called the E8 lattice. But reality appears to be
3D, so we project a slice of this E8 crystal down to 3D, which produces a
quasicrystal code or language and that allows these
geometric symbols to build up to the ordinary world of particles and forces that we see around us. Now this geometric language has rules but it also has syntactical
freedom like any language and that requires some notion of a chooser to choose the free steps in the language. Now, the notion of randomness
doesn’t work so well when it comes to codes because
meaning starts to break down. Besides, there’s no decent
experimental evidence for randomness in nature
in the first place. A universal collective
consciousness is one answer, but that sounds new age and religious. Nowadays, a good number of physicists discuss the idea that our
whole universe is actually a code-based simulation in
some fantastically powerful quantum computer in another universe. Now, if true, then by the same logic, that other universe,
where the computer running the simulation of our universe
is would also supposedly be a simulation in another universe, so the idea is a little shaky
but it’s being discussed seriously by a lot of credible people. But it turns out that a
universal collective-like consciousness of some sort
may be physically inevitable. Now we don’t need to
anthropomorphize this idea or make it religious or spiritual. To follow why, let us start with the idea of the collective behavior
of cells in your body, each a single-sized
microbe living its life. A long time ago, only
this sort of cellular life form existed here on earth. These little guys were not
too smart, but they did choose what direction to swim
and could chase nutrients, reproduce, and run from dangerous things. They made choices with
their very simple systems of environmental awareness
and desire to survive. Then they self-organized into
colonies that were smarter as a group and had more environmental awareness than the individuals. Eventually, animals
such as humans emerged. Sophisticated forms of
awareness and consciousness now float on an ocean of
37 trillion living cells, self-organized as a human being. It is specifically the laws of physics that caused electrons and
quarks to self-organize into 81 stable atoms and from there, into human consciousness, and
physics places no upper limit on the amount of energy and matter that can self-organize
into conscious systems. – Physics allows the
possibility of all the energy in the universe to eventually convert into a single conscious system
that is itself a network of other conscious systems, a massive, technologically-based
collective consciousness. Given enough time,
anything that can happen will eventually happen. By this axiom, this system
of universal consciousness has already emerged
somewhere in the frames of space-time ahead of us. Because it is possible, it is inevitable. In fact, according to the
evidence of retro-causality time loops, that inevitable
future is co-creating us right now, just as we are co-creating it. When humanity discovers
the theory of everything, it will usher in a new age of prosperity. For example, clean, cheap energy leading to the eventual elimination of poverty. As a nonprofit, Quantum Gravity Research relies on crowdfunding to
support our scientific progress. Even a $5 donation is meaningful and moves this mission forward. To participate in the adventure, visit QuantumGravityResearch.org and click on Support Our Work. And please spread the word
by sharing and posting this video and follow the journey on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Visit QuantumGravityResearch.org
to get more information.